Diverticulitis is one of the main causes of the acute abdomen. Acute abdomen accounts for roughly 50% of all urgent admissions to general surgical units. The acute abdomen may be a consequence of 1 or more pathological processes which may be inflammation, perforation, or obstruction.
Diverticula contain outpouchings within the bowel, most typically within the colon, but may be seen everywhere within the gut. a real diverticulum may be a blind outpouching of the alimentary canal that communicated with the lumen and every one the three layers of the bowel wall, that reflects failed involution of the vitelline duct. The foremost common true diverticulum is that the Meckel diverticulum.
Rule of 2s is applied for Meckel diverticulum.
Diverticulitis results from micro-perforation of a diverticulum and resultant extracolonic inflammation. Diverticular bleeding can also occur from an artery at the mouth of the diverticulum.
Diverticulosis is most often asymptomatic. Although diverticulosis is also found in patients being investigated for symptoms of abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, a causal link is difficult to determine.
Typical symptoms of diverticulitis include left lower quadrant abdominal pain together with fever and chills and alteration of bowel habits. Localized left quadrant abdominal tenderness is also elicited on physical examination.
Diverticulitis may be related to an elevated white somatic cell (WBC) count with a left shift. Diverticula are frequently seen on screening colonoscopy. Imaging studies, most typically CT scans, will be useful within the diagnosis of diverticulitis. Colonoscopy is contraindicated for 4-6 weeks after an episode of acute diverticulitis, but should be performed at that time interval to exclude a perforated neoplasm.
Diverticulitis treatment can be divided into pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment.
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Mild cases of diverticulum will be resolved completely with medication, diet, and high fluid intake but severe cases may end up in recurrence and no treatment is successful in giving a complete resolution. Only 5% of individuals with diverticulosis ever go to develop diverticulitis.